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Osteoporosis is a condition in which the patient has a low bone mass

ผู้ดูแลเว็บ ศูนย์ให้การศึกษาสมุดสงคราม
2019-05-14 16:02:23

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Osteoporosis is a condition in which the patient has a low bone mass and has a bone structure that changes at the micro level, causing the easily broken bone conditions. The bones that were found to be broken were more common in patients with osteoporosis, including vertebral bodies, distal radius and proximal femur, etc. Osteoporosis is divided into two types: primary osteoporosis, which is the severity or risk of fractures in women after menopause with a decrease in estrogen levels in the blood, and secondary osteoporosis, which is the osteoporosis caused by various factors, such as diseases that occur on bodies or the use of some types of drugs, e.g. corticosteroids (Natthawut Sibmoo, 2009: 505).

From academic service and local health service projects of Asst. Prof. Dr. Yuthana Sudcharoen and past researchers for the fiscal year 2017, Samut Songkhram Education Center, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University has provided medications for students and personnel within the education center.

It was found that there were a number of students with thin bones and there has never been a study on self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis of the students of College of Allied Health Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University before. The point of interest is that these students would graduate to become medical personnel who provide health services to the public. Therefore, the incidence of osteoporosis of students with the practice of preventing disease incorrectly may affect the problems of oneself. For this reason, the research team considers that it is necessary to conduct research on self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis of the students of College of Allied Health Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, in order to know the relationship of factors that cause osteoporosis, such as obesity and various risk behaviors, to take the results of this research to be used as basic information to find ways to create knowledge and understanding about osteoporosis, and to enhance the behavior of self-care in students.

Research objectives

            1. To study self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis and bone density values in students

            2. To study the relationship between self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis and bone mass density in students

            3.To study the relationship between body mass index level and bone mass density in students

Populations and samples

A. Population scope: The target population used in this research is to study in the students of College of Allied Health Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, totaling 400 people during October 2017 - October 2018.

B. Sample group: In this research, the researcher defined the sample group as the target population group, which is the students College of Allied Health Sciences Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, totaling 400 people during October 2017 - October 2018.

Research materials

  1. Sonost 2000 ultrasound bone densitometers
  2. The questionnaire of personal data and self-protection behaviors in students with osteoporosis

Interpretation of bone mass density measurement results

The measured bone density is measured in mass / bone area (gm / sq cm, gram / square centimeter). From this value, it is still not possible to determine whether the bone is thin or not. We must compare this to the normal value in the same age group, the same race or similar race (called the Z value), such as the Asian people, then calculated as a statistical variance called T-score (T) which is used as a diagnosis of bone mass density as below:

T score greater than -1 is considered normal bone density

T score that is between -1.1 to -2.4 is considered osteopenia

T score that is less than -2.5 is osteoporosis

In addition, if we need to repeat the examination to see changes in bone mass density, the same detector should be used  because each detector has different variations in itself which could make the results different.

Quality of Research Materials

1. Adopt the tools that are modified and improved to 3 experts to check the accuracy and validity by using the Index of Item-Objective Congruence (IOC), then propose the questions that the researcher has created to the experts for considering and giving opinions with the criteria for scoring as follows (Varo Pengsawat, 2008: 244-245):

Rate +1 when experts are sure that the question is consistent with the objectives

Rate 0 when the expert is not sure whether the question is consistent with the objectives or not

Rate -1 when experts are sure that the question is inconsistent with the objectives

2. Check reliability with the implementation of the questionnaire that has been modified to be tried out with 30 samples in elderly farmers in Amphawa District, Samut Songkhram Province, because it has features that similar to the sample group studied and would not be duplicate with real samples. The questionnaire on self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis of the students of Allied College of Medicine, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, was tested for reliability of the questionnaire by using alpha coefficient method (α-Coefficient) of Cronbach and obtained Cronbach's reliability at 0.852.

Data analysis 

Data was collected from all target sample groups. The researcher analyzed and processed by using a software package for research using statistical analysis in each section. This hypothesis test accepted statistical significance at the level of .01 and .05. The researcher followed the following steps:

1. Used statistics to analyze frequencies and percentages of personal information, gender, age, major, year, weight, height, congenital disease,  and information about self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis

2. Determined the relationship between self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis and body mass index level, and bone mass density by finding the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient

Conclusions and Results

Health data analysis and bone mass reduction in obesity by diet

When considering health data and bone mass conditions in obesity reduction by eliminating food and bone mass, as shown in Table 13, it was found that 8 students who reduced obesity with dietary restrictions had osteoporosis conditions, representing 5.1 percent of those who restricted food. Students with thin bone mass were 101 people, representing 63.9 percent of those who restricted food. There were 49 students with normal bone mass, representing 31.1 percent of those who restricted food, while 63 students who do not use weight loss methods with dietary restrictions had normal bone mass conditions, representing a percentage 26.0. There were 156 students with thin bone mass, representing a percentage 64.5 of those who do not limit food and 23 students who had got osteoporosis conditions, which was 9.5 percent.

Information on self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis

The presentation of information on the negative behaviors of self-prevention against osteoporosis contained various information including, firstly, lack of high calcium, such as milk, butter, small fish, canned fish with bones, dried shrimps, lobsters, shrimps, red beans, black sesame, green leafy vegetables, seafood that can be eaten in both shells, such as shrimp crusts, soft crabs etc. Other causes of osteoporosis  was  lack of food that increases calcium intake, such as calcium supplement milk, calcium tablets, calcium effervescent tablets, various drugs that increase bone mass, etc., drinking alcoholic beverages in excess of size, smoking, taking steroid medications, lack of exercise for 3-4 times a week, 30-45 minutes each, drinking soft drinks frequently per week, drinking coffee and tea frequently per week, eating salty foods frequently per week, lack of strengthening bone mass since childhood, such as drinking milk, eating calcium supplements earlier 10 years, not preventing falls by adjusting the environment or lack of health promotion for strength, lack of measurements of bone mass density, sleep deprivation more than 3 nights a week, having too few body movement when at home, and lack of sunlight in the morning.

According to the result on negative self-protection behaviors against osteoporosis of the 400 samples, it was found that the lack of high calcium diet was found most in 329 students, accounting for 82.3 percent, followed by lack of bone mass density measurements which is 328 students or 82.0 percent, lack of exercise for 3-4 times a week, 30-45 minutes each was found in 246 students or 61.5 percent, while student who have too few body movement when at home were 191 or 41.8 percent. Lack of food that increases calcium intake were found in 178 students, representing 44.5 percent, followed by students who drink soft drinks frequently per week were 166 or 41.5 percent. The lack of morning sun exposure were found 162 students, accounting for 40.5 percent. 145 Students drink coffee and tea often per week, representing a percentage 36.3. Failure to prevent falls by adjusting the environment or lack of health promotion for strength was found in 144 students, representing a percentage 36.0. Eating salty foods often was found in 129 students, representing a percentage 32.3. Sleep deprivation more than 3 nights a week was found in 117 students, representing a percentage 29.3. Lack of strengthening bone mass since childhood was found 94 students, accounting for 23.5 percent, while drinking alcoholic beverages in excess of the size was found in 18 students, representing a percentage 4.5. The consumption of steroids was found in 14 people, representing 3.5 percent, and smoking was found in 5 people, representing 1.3 percent, respectively.

The findings found that the negative behaviors of students with the osteoporosis mass was bone mass -4.6. This showed that the negative behaviors that can cause osteoporosis most were drinking soft drinks, tea, and coffee, eating salty foods often per week, and lack of bone density measurement.

Suggestions

Based on a research study on self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis of the students of College of Allied Health Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, the researcher suggests that the College of Allied Health Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University, should provide training to educate students about enhancing self-protection behaviors in students' osteoporosis to aim for this group of students to have knowledge in order to be able to use to change and strengthen self-protection behaviors in osteoporosis, and to understand the causes of osteoporosis, to avoid and prevent what causes osteoporosis, and to be able to initially treat osteoporosis that occurs. The institute should support the training on holistic health care regularly, at least once a month, for students in order to increase awareness and attention in preventing disease or enhancing health both physically and mentally, and to reduce illness and the use of drugs that are a public health burden.